20 Nā Neʻe Kiʻi Kipi i hoʻohālikelike i kā mākou mōʻaukala ʻike

Ke nānā nei i hope i ka moʻolelo o ke Komohana, he mea kupanaha ka nui o nā ʻano hana noʻeau i loaʻa i ka hopena i ke kaiāulu. Ma ka ʻimi ʻana i nā kaʻina manawa o nā ʻano hana noʻeau like ʻole, ʻaʻole hiki iā mākou ke ʻike i ke ʻano o ka ulu ʻana o ke kiʻi hou a me ke ʻano o kēia wā, akā pehea ka ʻike ʻana o ke kiʻi i kona au.

No ka laʻana, ua ʻike paha ʻoe ua manaʻo ʻia ka Impressionism he neʻe i lalo o ka honua, hoʻopaʻapaʻa, a i ʻole ʻo Abstract Expressionism i hōʻailona i ka neʻe ʻana o ka honua kiʻi mai Paris a i New York? E like me nā poloka kūkulu hale, pili kēia mau ʻano hana like ʻole, mai ka ʻoiaʻiʻo a hiki i ka palaka. Ke koli nei ka pendulum hana, ʻo ke ʻano hana kiʻi he pane a mahalo paha i ko lākou mau mua. Ma ka nānā ʻana i hope i kekahi o nā hana noʻeau koʻikoʻi o ka mōʻaukala, loaʻa iā mākou kahi kiʻi maʻalahi o ka hoʻohuli ʻana o nā mea pena kaulana e like me Van Gogh, Picasso, a me Warhol i ka honua noʻeau.

He mea nui kēia mau hana kiʻi kiʻi 20 no ka hoʻomaopopo ʻana i nā ʻano hana like ʻole i hoʻokumu i ka mōʻaukala hou.

1, ʻO ke ʻano hana hou o Italia

ʻO ka mea hana kiʻi kiʻi kiʻi kiʻi maʻamau a David ma Kina

ʻO Michelangelo, "David", 1501-1504

Mai ke kenekulia 14 a hiki i ka 17, ua ʻike ʻo Italia i kahi au o ka mālamalama. ʻIke ʻia ʻo Renaissance - kahi huaʻōlelo i loaʻa mai ka huaʻōlelo Italia ʻo Rinascimento a i ʻole "hanau hou" - ua ʻike kēia manawa i ka piʻi ʻana o ka nānā ʻana i nā kumuhana moʻomeheu e like me ke kiʻi a me ka hoʻolālā.

ʻO nā mea pena kiʻi Italian Renaissance, e like me Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, a me Raphael, ua hoʻoikaika ʻia mai ke kiʻi kahiko o Roma a me Helene, e hoʻohana ana i nā makemake kahiko e like me ke kaulike, ka naturalism, a me ka ʻike. I ka Renaissance Italia, ua hōʻike ʻia kēia ʻano hana kahiko i ke kiʻi kanaka, ke kiʻi anatomically pololei, a me ka hoʻolālā like ʻana.

Nā Mea Kiʻi Kaulana: 'O Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael, Titian

Nā mea hana kiʻi kiʻi: ʻO Sandro Botticelli ʻO The Birth of Venus (1486), Leonardo da Vinci's The Last Supper (1495-1498), Mona Lisa (c.1503- 1506), Michelangelo's David (1501-1504), Raphael's School of Athens (1509) 1511)

 

2, Baroka

maʻamau ʻO ka Ecstasy o Santa Teresa kiʻi kiʻi kiʻi kiʻi kūʻai nui ma Kina

ʻO Bernini ʻo The Rapture of Santa Teresa. 1647-1652. Cornaro Church, Santa Maria Della Victoria

I ka pau ʻana o ka Renaissance, ʻo ka piʻi ʻana o ka neʻe Baroque ma Italia. E like me ke ʻano ma mua, ua hōʻike ʻia ke kiʻi Baroque i kahi hoihoi no ka ʻoiaʻiʻo a me nā kala momona. ʻAʻole like me ka Renaissance art a me ka hoʻolālā, akā naʻe, ua hoʻoikaika nā hana Baroque i ka extravagance.

ʻIke ʻia kēia opulence i ka pena Baroque, kiʻi kiʻi, a me ka hoʻolālā. Hoʻopili nā mea pena e like me Caravaggio i ka hana keaka ma o kā lākou mālama ʻana i ka māmā a me ka hōʻike ʻana i ka neʻe. Ua loaʻa i nā mea kālai kiʻi e like me Bernini ke ʻano o ke keaka ma o nā silhouette dynamic a me nā drapery paʻakikī. Hoʻonani nā mea kālai kiʻi ma ʻEulopa i kā lākou mau hoʻolālā me nā kiʻi kālai ʻia a me nā ʻano mea hoʻonani like ʻole e like me nā kolamu hoʻonani.

Nā Mea Kiʻi Kaulana: Caravaggio, Rembrandt, Bernini

Nā mea hana kiʻi kiʻi: The Call of St. Matthew na Caravaggio (1599-1600), Rembrandt's The Night's Watch (1642), Bernini's The Rapture of St. Teresa (1647-1652)

 

3, Rokoko

maʻamau ʻO ka mea hana kiʻi kiʻi nui ʻo Swing ma Kina

ʻO Jean-Honoré Fragonard, The Swing, 1767

Ma hope o ka hoʻonui a me ka mana o ke kiʻi Baroque, hiki mai ka neʻe ʻana o Rococo puʻuwai māmā a me ka palaka, i ulu aʻe ma Farani i ka makahiki 18 ma mua o ka laha ʻana i nā ʻāina ʻē aʻe o ʻEulopa. ʻO ka huaʻōlelo rococo mai ka rocaille, kahi ʻano o ka hoʻonani ʻana i nā grottoes a me nā pūnāwai i ka wā Renaissance me ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā ʻiliʻili, nā pūpū, a me ka sima.

I nā makahiki 1730, ua hoʻoulu ʻia ka mea hoʻonaninani rocaille i nā pihi ʻōwili i nā mea hoʻonaninani a me ka hoʻolālā o loko. Ma ka pena kiʻi, ua unuhi ʻia kēia ʻano kāhiko i ke aloha i nā moʻolelo haʻahaʻa, nā waihoʻoluʻu muted, a me nā ʻano wai.

Nā mea pena kiʻi kaulana: Jean-Honoré Fragonard, Antoine Watteau, François Boucher

Nā Hana Kiʻi Kiʻi: The Swing na Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1767)

 

4, Neoclassical

hana maʻamau ʻO ka Horati Oath kiʻi hoʻomanaʻo kiʻi kiʻi kiʻi kiʻi nui ma Kina

ʻO ka Horatio Oath na Jacques-Louis David 1784–5

ʻO ka neoclassicism kahi hana noʻeau o ke kenekulia 18 e pili ana i nā manaʻo noʻeau Roma a me Helene kahiko. Ua hoʻoulu ʻia e ka makemake i ka maʻalahi a me ka lokahi, kahi hopena maikaʻi ʻole i ka aesthetic maikaʻi ʻole o ke ʻano ʻo Rococo. ʻO ka loaʻa ʻana o nā kūlanakauhale archaeological Roma o Pompeii a me Herculaneum (1738 a me 1748, kēlā me kēia) ua kōkua i ka hoʻoulu ʻana i ka ʻuhane o ka neʻe.

Nā mea pena kiʻi kaulana: Jacques-Louis David, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Antonio Canova

Nā mea hana kiʻi kiʻi: Jacques-Louis David's Oath of Horatio (1784-1785), Jacques-Louis David's The Death of Socrates (1787), Jacques-Louis the Great David's The Death of Marat (1793), Ingres 'The Lady of the Palace (1814). XNUMX)

 

5, Hoomanamana

ʻO Liberty Ke alakaʻi nei i ka poʻe pena kiʻi kiʻi kiʻi kiʻi kiʻi nui ma Kina

ʻO Delacroix "Liberty alakaʻi i ka poʻe"

ʻO ka Romanticism kahi moʻomeheu moʻomeheu i puka mai ma kahi o 1780. Ma mua o kona piʻi ʻana, ua lanakila ka neoclassicism i ka 18th-century European art, i hōʻike ʻia e ka nānā ʻana i nā kumumanaʻo kahiko, ka hoihoi i ka austerity aesthetic, a me nā manaʻo e kūlike me ka Enlightenment, he naʻauao, kālaiʻike, a pilikino. neʻe palapala.

ʻO nā mea pena kiʻi e like me Eugène Delacroix i loaʻa i ka hoʻoikaika i ko lākou mau noʻonoʻo. Ua hoʻokumu ʻia kēia ʻano noʻonoʻo noʻonoʻo iā ia iho ma ke ʻano he kiʻi kiʻi e ʻimi mua i ka ʻuhane.

Nā mea pena kaulana: Joseph Mallord William Turner, Eugène Delacroix, Theodore Jericho, Francisco Goya

Nā mea hana kiʻi kiʻi: Caspar David Friedrich, The Wanderer over the Sea of ​​Fog (1818), Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People (1830)

 

6, ʻOiʻiʻo Art

ʻO nā mea hana kiʻi kiʻi kiʻi kiʻi kiʻi maʻamau ka mea hana a me ka mea hoʻolako ma Kina

ʻO Jean-François Millet, The Gleaners, 1857

ʻO Realism kahi kula kiʻi i hoʻomaka ma Farani ma hope o ka hoʻokahuli Farani i ka makahiki 1848. ʻO ka hōʻole maopopo ʻana i ka Romanticism, ke ʻano nui, ua kālele nā ​​mea pena Realist i nā poʻe a me nā hiʻohiʻona o ke ola o kēlā me kēia lā. Ma hope o nā kenekulia o nā mea pena kiʻi e hōʻike ana i nā moʻolelo moʻokalaleo a me ka Baibala, a i ʻole ka hana ʻana i nā kiʻi o nā aliʻi a me nā kāhuna pule, ʻo ka mea maʻamau i kēia manawa he kipi.

ʻO nā mea pena kiʻi Farani e like me Gustave Courbet a me Honoré Daumier, a me nā mea pena kiʻi honua e like me James Abbott McNeill Whistler, e nānā i nā papa kaiaulu āpau i kā lākou kiʻi, no ka manawa mua ka hāʻawi ʻana i ka leo i nā lālā ʻilihune o ke kaiāulu a me ka hōʻike ʻana i nā pilikia pilikanaka i hana ʻia e ka Hoʻololi ʻOihana. He hopena nō hoʻi ka paʻi kiʻi ʻana i kēia kiʻi, e koi ana i nā mea pena e hana i nā hiʻohiʻona maoli i ka hoʻokūkū me kēia ʻenehana hou.

Nā mea pena kiʻi kaulana: Gustave Courbet, Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, Jean-François Miller, James McNeill Whistler

Nā mea hana kiʻi kiʻi: Jean-François Miller's The Gleaners (1857), Gustave Courbet's Tomb of Ornans (1849–1850)

 

7, Ka hoʻomanaʻo

ʻO ka wai Lilies mea kūʻai kūʻai kūʻai nui ma Kina

ʻO Claude Monet, "Water Lilies", 1906

He paʻakikī paha ke manaʻoʻiʻo, akā ʻo kēia ʻano kiʻi kaulana loa i kēia manawa he neʻe ʻike maka. I ka haʻalele ʻana mai ka ʻoiaʻiʻo, ua neʻe aku nā Impressionists mai nā hiʻohiʻona maoli i makemake i nā brushstrokes ʻike ʻia, nā kala ʻālohilohi me ka hui pū ʻana, a me nā haku mele e hopu ai i ka manaʻo o ka māmā a me ka neʻe.

Ua hoʻomaka ka Impressionism i ka wā i haki ai kahi hui o nā mea pena kiʻi Farani me nā kuʻuna hoʻonaʻauao ma o ka pena ʻana i waho - he hoʻoholo haʻalulu i ka hana ʻana o ka hapa nui o nā mea pena kiʻi i loko o kā lākou studio.

Ua hoʻokumu ʻia nā hui mua, me Claude Monet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Alfred Sisley, a me Frederic Bazille, ma Farani i ka makahiki 1860.

Ma hope o ka hōʻole ʻia ʻana e nā hale kūʻai Farani kuʻuna, e hui hou nā mea pena kiʻi i kā lākou hui e hōʻike i kā lākou hana, a lākou e manaʻo nei he hoʻopaʻapaʻa loa e hōʻike. Ua hana ʻia kēia hōʻikeʻike ma lalo o ka honua i ka makahiki 1874, a ua kaulana lākou i ka lehulehu.

Nā mea pena kiʻi kaulana: ʻO Claude Monet, Camille Pissarro, ʻO Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Marie Cassatt

Nā mea hana kiʻi kiʻi: Monet's Impression, Sunrise (1872), Renoir's Ball at the Moulin Rouge (1876), Monet's Water Lilies series (1890-1900)

 

8, Post-impressionism

ʻO ka hana kiʻi kiʻi kiʻi kiʻi kiʻi maʻamau o Starry Night ma Kina

ʻO Vincent van Gogh, Ka Po Hōkū, 1889

Hoʻomaka hou i Farani, ua ulu kēia ʻano hana ma waena o 1886 a me 1905 ma ke ʻano he pane i ka neʻe Impressionist. I kēia manawa, ua pane nā mea pena i ka pono o nā kiʻi kūlohelohe o ka mālamalama a me ke kala i ka hana Impressionist. Kūlike ʻole i nā ʻano mua, ua hoʻopili ʻia ka Post-Impressionism i nā ʻano hana like ʻole, mai ka pointillism o Georges Seurat a i ka Symbolism o Paul Gauguin.

ʻAʻole hoʻohui ʻia nā mea pena kiʻi e kahi ʻano hoʻokahi, akā me ka hoʻokomo ʻana i nā mea abstract a me nā mea hōʻailona i kā lākou hana. ʻO Vincent van Gogh paha ka mea pena kiʻi kiʻi kaulana loa, nāna i hoʻohana i nā kala a me nā palaki e hōʻike i ka maikaʻi o ka naʻau o ka ʻāina, akā i kona mau manaʻo ponoʻī a me kona ʻano o ka noʻonoʻo.

Nā mea pena kiʻi kaulana: Georges Seurat, ʻO Vincent van Gogh, Paul cezanne, Paul Gauguin, Emile Bernard

Nā mea hana kiʻi kiʻi: ʻO George Seuratʻo "Sunday Afternoon on the Isle of the Big Bowl" (1884-1886), Vincent van Gogh's "Starry Night" (1889), Paul Gauguin's "The Yellow Christ" (1891)

 

9, Art Nouveau

maʻamau ʻO ka mea hana kiʻi hoʻomanaʻo kiʻi kiʻi ʻehā i Kina

ʻO Alphonse Mucha, Nā Kau ʻEhā, 1897

I ka pau ʻana o ke kenekulia 19, ua holo ka neʻe ʻana o "Art Nouveau" ma ʻEulopa. Hōʻike ʻia e ka hoihoi i ka unuhi hou ʻana i ka nani o ke ʻano i ke ʻano, ua lawe a hoʻololi nā mea pena kiʻi mai kēlā ʻaoʻao o ka ʻāina i kēia ʻano avant-garde. ʻO ka hopena, ua ʻike ʻia i loko o nā neʻe ʻana e like me ka Vienna Secession ma Austria, Modernism ma Sepania, a me ka mea kaulana loa i ka French Art Nouveau.

Ua apo ʻia ke ʻano French Art Nouveau e nā mea pena kiʻi o nā ʻano mea like ʻole. Ma waho aʻe o ka pena kiʻi a me ke kiʻi kiʻi, ua hōʻike nui ʻia i ka hoʻolālā a me nā mea hoʻonaninani o ka wā. Hiki ke ʻike ʻia paha kāna hoʻoilina mau loa ma nā pepa pepa - ʻo ka ʻoihana kalepa a ka mea pena kiʻi Czech ʻo Alphonse Mucha i kōkua ai e hoʻokiʻekiʻe i kahi ʻano hana kiʻi hou.

Nā mea pena kiʻi kaulana: Alphonse Manya, Gustav Klimt

Nā kiʻi kiʻi kiʻi: The Four Seasons na Alphonse Mucha, The Kiss na Gustav Klimt

 

10, Kubisme

ʻO nā wahine maʻamau o Avignon pena kiʻi mea hoʻomanaʻo nui i Kina

ʻO Pablo Picasso, nā Wahine o Avignon, 1907

ʻO ka Cubism kahi ʻano kiʻi kipi maoli a ʻo kekahi o nā neʻe kiʻi koʻikoʻi o ke kenekulia 20. Ua hoʻokumu ʻo Pablo Picasso lāua ʻo Georges Braque i ka Cubism i nā makahiki 1900, a ua haku ʻo Louis Vauxcelles i ka huaʻōlelo i ka makahiki 1907 e wehewehe i kēia mau mea pena.

I nā makahiki 1910 a me 1920, hoʻohana nā kāne ʻelua—a me nā mea pena kiʻi ʻē aʻe—i nā ʻano geometric e kūkulu i nā hōʻike hope loa. ʻAʻole like me nā hana noʻeau mua, ʻimi ʻia a wehe ʻia nā mea, e hui hou ʻia i nā ʻano abstract.

ʻO ka hōʻemi ʻana i nā kiʻi i nā laina liʻiliʻi loa a me nā ʻano he ʻāpana o ka ʻimi ʻana o Cubism no ka maʻalahi. Ua komo pū ka hiʻohiʻona liʻiliʻi i loko o ka palette, me ka Cubism ditching shadows a me ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā leo liʻiliʻi e hoʻokō i kahi nānā palahalaha.

He ʻokoʻa kēia mai ka manaʻo o ka mea hoʻohana, ʻo ia ka mea maʻamau mai ka Renaissance. Ua wehe ʻo Cubism i ka puka i nā neʻe kiʻi ma hope e like me Surrealism a me Abstract Expressionism ma ka haʻalele ʻana i ka rulebook a ka mea pena i kuhikuhi ʻia.

Nā mea pena kiʻi kaulana: Picasso, Georges Braque, Juan Gris

Nā Hana Kiʻi Kiʻi: Nā Wahine o Avignon a Pablo Picasso (1907)

 

11, ʻO ka hoʻomanaʻo

maʻamau ʻO ka Vitality o kahi ʻīlio ma kahi kiʻi kiʻi kiʻi kiʻi kiʻi kiʻi kiʻi kiʻi nui ma Kina

ʻO Giacomo Barra, "The Energy of a Dog on a Leash" 1912

ʻO ka poʻe futurists o ka hoʻomaka ʻana o ke kenekulia 20th ua hoihoi ʻia e nā ʻoihana hou a hauʻoli i nā hanana e hiki mai ana, a he wahi ko lākou i ka mōʻaukala. Ua ulu kēia mau mea pena kiʻi ma Italia a ua hana ma ke ʻano he mea pena kiʻi, kiʻi kiʻi kiʻi, nā mea hoʻokani pila, nā mea kākau, a me nā mea hoʻolālā ʻoihana.

No ka mea ʻaʻole i kamaʻilio pololei nā manifestos mua i ka hoʻopuka noʻeau o Futurism, ua lōʻihi ka manawa e hoʻomohala i kahi ʻike cohesive. ʻO kahi hiʻohiʻona o ka hana futuristic ka hōʻike o ka wikiwiki a me ka neʻe. Ma keʻano kūikawā, pili lākou i ke kumumanaʻo o "dynamism universal," ʻo ia hoʻi, ʻaʻohe mea i hoʻokaʻawale ʻia mai kona ʻaoʻao a i ʻole.

Ua hōʻike maikaʻi ʻia kēia ma ka Giacomo Barra ʻo The Vitality of a Dog on a Leash, kahi e hōʻike ʻia ai ka hana o ka hele ʻana i kahi ʻīlio ma o ka hoʻonui ʻana i nā wāwae o ka ʻīlio, ka lei, a me nā wāwae o ka mea nona.

Nā mea pena kiʻi kaulana: Giacomo Barra, Umberto Boccioni

Nā mea hana kiʻi kiʻi: Giacomo Barra, "The dynamism of a dog on a leash" (1912), Umberto Boccioni's "Unique Forms of Spatial Continuity" (1913)

 

12, Dadaism

maʻamau ʻO ka punawai pena kiʻi souvenir mea hana nui ma Kina

ʻO Marcel Duchamp, "Punawai", 1917

ʻO Dada he neʻe kiʻi avant-garde (i kapa pinepine ʻia ʻo ka "anti-art") o ke kenekulia 20, i hānau ʻia mai loko mai o ka ʻāina ʻino a me ka haunaele o ke Kaua Honua Mua. nā weliweli o ke kaua a me ka hoʻokamani a me ka lapuwale o ka hui bourgeois i alakaʻi iā ia.

I ka hoʻokahuli ʻana i nā ʻano āpau o ka moʻomeheu Komohana (me kāna ʻano kiʻi), ua hōʻole nā ​​manaʻo o Dada i nā loina, kumu, kumu, a me ka hoʻonohonoho ʻana - ua manaʻo ʻia ʻo ia mau mea a pau ke kua o ka evolution a me nā hui holomua mai ka Age of Enlightenment.

Nā mea pena kiʻi kaulana: Marcel Duchamp, Man Ray, Tristan Chara

Nā Hana Kiʻi Kiʻi: ʻO ka Punawai o Marcel Duchamp (1917)

 

13, Bauhaus

ʻO ka mea hana kiʻi kiʻi kiʻi kiʻi kiʻi kiʻi maʻamau o Bauhaus ma Kina

ʻO Joos Schmidt ka pepa o ka Bauhaus movement, 1923

Mai ka pena kiʻi a me nā kiʻi kiʻi i ka hoʻolālā a me ka hoʻolālā o loko, ua hoʻomalu ʻia ke kiʻi Bauhaus i nā ala he nui o nā kiʻi hoʻokolohua ʻEulopa i nā makahiki 1920 a me 1930. ʻOiai ua pili pili loa ia me Kelemania, ua hoʻokipa a hoʻoikaika i nā mea pena kiʻi o nā ʻano āpau.

ʻO ka Bauhaus—ʻo ia hoʻi ka "kūkulu hale" - he kumu ia ma ke kula kiʻi Kelemania i ka hoʻomaka ʻana o ke kenekulia 20. Hoʻokumu ʻia e Walter Gropius, ua hoʻololi hope ke kula i kāna ʻano hana kiʻi hou, i ʻike ʻia e kona ʻano kūʻokoʻa i ka hoʻolālā a me ka hoʻolālā.

Nā mea pena kiʻi kaulana: Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, Jost Schmidt, Marcel Breuer

Nā mea hana kiʻi kiʻi: Wassily Kandinsky's Yellow Red Blue (1925), Marcel Breuer's Wassily Chair (1925)

 

14, Art Deco

hana maʻamau ʻO ka Straw Hat pena kiʻi souvenir mea hana nui ma Kina

ʻO Tamara de Lempicka – Pāleʻa Straw © 2019 Tamara Heritage / ADAGP, Paris / ARS, New York

ʻO Art Deco kahi hana hou i kū mai ma ʻEulopa i ka makahiki 1920. ʻOiai he nui nā mea hoʻonaninani like ʻole e hana i ka neʻe - me nā ʻāpana kala like ʻole a me nā ʻano mea like ʻole, mai ka ebony a me ka ʻelepani i ka lāʻau a me ka plastic - ʻike pinepine ʻia e nā ʻano geometric streamlined, i hui pū ʻia me nā ʻāpana waiwai a me nā mea hoʻonaninani laina i ke ʻano like ʻole.

ʻO nā kiʻi pena i hana ʻia ma ke ʻano Art Deco e hōʻike pinepine i nā ʻano wiwo ʻole a me nā haku mele. ʻO kekahi, e like me ka hana a ka mea pena kiʻi hānau Polani ʻo Tamara de Lempicka, e hōʻike ana i nā kiʻi paʻi o nā kumuhana ʻano. ʻO ka manawa pinepine, ua ʻaʻahu ʻia nā kiʻi i nā kala ʻālohilohi a hoʻonohonoho ʻia i nā wahi metropolitan abstract.

Nā mea pena kiʻi kaulana: Tamara de Lempicka

Nā Hana Kiʻi Kiʻi: Tamara i loko o kahi Bugatti ʻōmaʻomaʻo (1929) na Tamara de Lempicka

 

15, Ka Manawa

maʻamau ʻO ka hoʻomau o ka hoʻomanaʻo ʻana i nā mea hoʻomanaʻo kiʻi kiʻi kiʻi nui ma Kina

ʻO ka hoʻomau o ka hoʻomanaʻo na Salvador Dali. 1931. Hale Hōʻikeʻike o Modern Art, New York.

Hiki ke paʻakikī ka wehewehe pololei ʻana o Surrealism, akā maopopo ka mana o kēia neʻe mua-avant-garde i ka mana a noho mau ʻo ia kekahi o nā ʻano hana kiʻi hiki ke hoʻokokoke a hiki i kēia lā. ʻO ka noʻonoʻo i hoʻoulu ʻia e ka subconscious ka hōʻailona o kēia ʻano hana, i hoʻomaka i ka makahiki 1920. Hoʻomaka ka neʻe ʻana i ka wā i hoʻopili ai kahi hui o nā mea pena kiʻi kiʻi i ka automation, kahi ʻenehana e hilinaʻi nei i ka subconscious no ka hana.

Ua hoʻohana ka poʻe Surrealists i ke kāhea o ka mea pena e hoʻokuʻu iā lākou iho mai nā palena a loaʻa i ke kūʻokoʻa hoʻomohala holoʻokoʻa, pinepine i nā manaʻo paʻakikī a me ka ʻoiaʻiʻo i kā lākou hana. ʻO kahi o ke kumu ka hui pū ʻana o kahi ʻano pena kiʻi maoli me nā kumuhana like ʻole.

ʻO nā mea pena kiʻi kaulana: Salvador Dali, Max Ernst, Rene Magritte

Nā mea hana kiʻi kiʻi: Rene Magritte's Betrayal of Images (1929), Salvador Dali's Persistence of Memory (1931)

 

16, Olelo Hoike

ʻO ka mea hana kūʻai kūʻai nui o ka Autumn Rhythm pena kiʻi kiʻi ma Kina

“Autumn Rhythm (No. 30)” na Jackson Pollock. 1950. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

ʻO Abstract Expressionism kahi hana noʻeau ʻAmelika i hoʻomaka ma hope o ke Kaua Honua II - kāna pahū mua ma ka pae honua. Ua hoʻopaʻa ʻia ke kūlana o New York ma ke ʻano he kikowaena hou o ka honua noʻeau, kahi i hoʻokumu ʻia ma Paris.

Ua hoʻokumu ʻia ke ʻano i nā makahiki 1940 a me 1950, ʻoiai ua hoʻohana ʻia ka huaʻōlelo e wehewehe i ka hana a nā mea pena mua e like me Wassily Kandinsky. Lawe kēia ʻano hana kiʻi i ka manaʻo o Surrealism a hoʻokomo iā ia me ka trauma ʻeleʻele lōʻihi o ka wā ma hope o ke kaua.

He alakaʻi ʻo Jackson Pollock i ka neʻe ʻana, a ua hōʻike kāna mau kiʻi paʻi kiʻi i ka hana ʻana a me ka hoʻohana ʻana i ka pena gestural i wehewehe i ke ʻano.

ʻO ka huaʻōlelo “Abstract Expressionism”, ʻoiai pili pili i ka hana a Pollock, ʻaʻole i kaupalena ʻia i hoʻokahi ʻano kikoʻī. Hana like ʻole e like me nā kiʻi pena kiʻi a Willem de Kooning a hāʻule nā ​​māla kala a Mark Rothko ma lalo o ka māhele o Abstract Expressionism.

Nā mea pena kiʻi kaulana: Jackson Pollock, Willem de Kooning, Clyfford Steele, Mark Rothko

Nā Hana Kiʻi Kiʻi: ʻO "Autumn Rhythm" a Jackson Pollock (No. 30)

 

17, Pop Art

Hiki iā Campbell's Soup ke pena i nā mea ho'omana'o kū'ai nui ma Kina

ʻO Campbell's Soup Can na Andy Warhol

Ua puka mai ʻo Pop Art i ka makahiki 1950 ma ke ʻano he neʻe koʻikoʻi e hōʻike ana i ka hoʻomaka ʻana o nā kiʻi o kēia wā. Ua ʻike ʻia kēia ʻano ma hope o ke kaua ma UK a me US, me nā kiʻi mai nā hoʻolaha, nā puke comic, a me nā mea o kēlā me kēia lā. Hoʻohenehene pinepine ʻia ʻo Pop Art, e hōʻike ana i nā mea banal o nā waiwai maʻamau, a manaʻo pinepine ʻia he pane i nā mea subliminal o Abstract Expressionism.

He laʻana maikaʻi loa kā Roy Lichtenstein hana wiwo ʻole o ka hoʻohui ʻia ʻana o ka parody a me ka moʻomeheu pop me nā kiʻi maikaʻi e hiki ai ke kiʻi. Ua kōkua ʻo Andy Warhol ke kiʻi kaulana loa o Pop Art, i ka hoʻokele ʻana i ka manaʻo kipi o ka hana kiʻi nui, e hana ana i kāna moʻo paʻi kiʻi kaulana.

Nā mea pena kiʻi kaulana: Andy Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein, Jasper Johns

Hana Kiʻi Kiʻi: Andy Warhol's Campbell's Soup Can (1962)

 

18, Hoʻokomo Art

maʻamau ʻO ka Mirror Room pena kiʻi souvenir mea hana nui ma Kina

ʻO "Souls A Million Light Years Away" a Yayoi Kusama

I ka waena o ke kenekulia 20, ua hoʻomaka nā mea pena kiʻi avant-garde ʻEulopa a me ʻAmelika e hana i nā kiʻi hoʻonohonoho. ʻO nā hoʻonohonoho ʻana he mau ʻano ʻekolu-dimensional e launa pū me ka lewa e huki ai i nā mea nānā. Hoʻololi pinepine kēia mau mea hana kiʻi i nā hale hōʻikeʻike, nā hale kiʻi kiʻi, a me nā wahi waho i loko o nā kaiapuni immersive.

Hoʻoulu ʻia e Marcel Duchamp's Dadaist Readymade (he pūʻulu o nā mea i hana ʻia i hoʻonohonoho ʻia i ke kiʻi kiʻi), ua hoʻokumu ʻia kēia ʻano koʻikoʻi e nā haku o kēia wā e like me Yayoi Kusama a me Louise Bourgeois.

I kēia mau lā, hoʻomau ka mea pena kiʻi o kēia wā i kāna hana, hana i nā hoʻonohonoho hoʻokolohua me ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā mea e like me ke kaula, ka pepa, a me nā pua.

Nā Artists kaulana: Yayoi Kusama, Louise Bourgeois, Damien Hirst

Iconic Artwork: The Mirror Room na Yayoi Kusama

 

19, Manao maoli

ʻO ka mea hana kūʻai kūʻai kūʻai kiʻi kiʻi ʻole inoa ʻole ma Kina

ʻAʻole inoa ʻia e Igar Ozeri, 2012.

ʻO ka Realism kahi ʻano hana kiʻi e kālele ana i ka hiki ke hoʻokalakupua i ka lehulehu. ʻO ia ka mea mua he neʻe kiʻi ʻAmelika i loaʻa ka manawa i ka hopena o 1960s a me 1970s ma ke ʻano he pane i ka Abstract Expressionism.

Maʻaneʻi, manaʻo nui ka poʻe pena kiʻi i ka hana hou ʻana i ke kiʻi e like me ka mea hiki iā lākou, e hoʻolālā pono i kā lākou hana i ka hopena maikaʻi loa, a me ka haʻalele ʻana i ka spontaneity ʻo ia ka hōʻailona o Abstract Expressionism. E like me ka Pop Art, ʻike pinepine ʻo Realism i nā kiʻi e pili ana i ka moʻomeheu mea kūʻai aku.

ʻOiai ua paʻa ka moʻoʻiʻo mua i ka nostalgia no nā ʻāina ʻAmelika, i kēia manawa, ua lilo ke kiʻi maoli i kumuhana maʻamau. ʻO ka Hyperrealism ka holomua o kahi ʻano hana kiʻi i hana ʻia ai ke kiʻi a me ke kiʻi kiʻi i ke ʻano e hoʻonāukiuki ai i kahi pane manaʻo kupaianaha, e piʻi ana i kahi kiʻekiʻe o ka realism ma muli o nā hoʻomohala ʻenehana. Hoʻokahi mea maʻamau, pono e hoʻomaka nā hana a pau mai kahi wahi kuhikuhi kiʻi.

Nā mea pena kiʻi kaulana: Chuck Cross, Lal Goin, Igar Ozeri

Nā Hana Kiʻi Kiʻi: Untitled by Igar Ozeri

 

20, ʻO Art

ʻO ka mea hana kūʻai kūʻai kūʻai nui ʻo Incarnation pena kiʻi ma Kina

Incarnation na Mark Lydon

ʻO ke kiʻi haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa, i ʻike ʻia ʻo Pop Surrealism, he ʻano hana kiʻi i hoʻokumu ʻia ma Kaleponi ma lalo o ka honua i nā makahiki 1970. Hoʻokaʻawale ʻia mai ka honua noʻeau maikaʻi, ua hoʻololi ʻia ke kiʻi haʻahaʻa mai ka pena pena i nā mea pāʻani, kiʻi kiʻi kiʻi, a me ke kiʻi kiʻi.

Loaʻa ke ʻano o ka moʻomeheu i nā mele mele ma lalo o ka honua, nā mele punk, a me ka moʻomeheu heʻenalu, me ka ʻimi ʻole o nā mea pena kiʻi i ka ʻae ʻia o nā hale kiʻi. Ma ka hoʻohui ʻana i nā kiʻi surreal me nā pops o ka waihoʻoluʻu a i ʻole nā ​​kiʻi, ua loaʻa i nā mea pena i nā hopena moeʻuhane i hoʻokomo pinepine ʻia i nā kumumanaʻo erotic a satirical.

ʻO ka piʻi ʻana o nā makasina e like me Juxtapoz a me Hi-Fructose i hāʻawi i kahi ʻaha kūkā no nā mea pena kiʻi haʻahaʻa e hōʻike i kā lākou hana ma waho o ka pāpaho noʻeau o kēia wā.

Nā mea pena kiʻi kaulana: Mark Lydon, Ray Caesar, Audrey Kawasaki

ʻO ka hana kiʻi kiʻi: "The Avatar" na Mark Ryden

 

Eia kekahi, ʻo ke kiʻi kinetic i hōʻike ʻia e Alexander Calder's Victory Red i loaʻa ka hopena nui i ka mōʻaukala o ka hoʻololi ʻana i ke kanaka.

ʻO ka neʻe ʻana o kēia wā i hoʻomaka i ka Impressionism i ka wā i hoʻomaka ai nā mea pena kiʻi e hoʻāʻo e hōʻike i ka neʻe ʻana i kā lākou hana. I ka hoʻomaka ʻana o nā makahiki 1900, ua hoʻomaka nā mea pena kiʻi e hoʻāʻo hou i ke kiʻi kinetic, i hoʻoulu ʻia e nā mīkini kiʻi kiʻi a me nā kelepona paʻa.

ʻO nā mea pena kiʻi Lūkini ʻo Vladimir Tatlin lāua ʻo Alexander Rodchenko nā mea hana mua o ke kelepona paʻa kiʻi kiʻi, i hoʻopau ʻia ma hope e Alexander Calder.

Ma nā huaʻōlelo o kēia wā, ʻo nā kinetic art nā kiʻi kiʻi a me nā mea hoʻonohonoho kahi e noʻonoʻo nui ai ka neʻe. ʻO ka mea pena kiʻi ʻAmelika ʻo Anthony Howe kahi mea alakaʻi i ka neʻe ʻana o kēia wā, me ka hoʻohana ʻana i ka hoʻolālā kōkua kamepiula no kāna mau kiʻi kiʻi makani nui.

 

ʻO TALMUD kahi alakaʻi pilikino makana makana noʻeau mea kūʻai mea kūʻai nui ma Kina, loaʻa iā mākou kahi hui maikaʻi loa e aʻo i nā kiʻi pena kaulana a me nā ʻano mea pena kiʻi, e hoʻopili i ka waiwai kiʻi i ka hana hoʻomanaʻo, a lawelawe no kā mākou mea kūʻai waiwai.

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